Note to myself so I don't have to search for it the next time I've to answer security audit questions.
If you're lucky and you're running Debian you can install pgpdump and use
gpg --export-options export-minimal --export $KEYID | pgpdump
to retrieve a human friendly output. If you're unlucky you have to use
gpg --export-options export-minimal --export $KEYID | gpg --list-packets
and match the CIPHER_ALGO_∗ and DIGEST_ALGO_∗ numbers with those in include/cipher.h.
Found the information in this thread.
Update: anarcat suggested to take a look at the tools contained in hopenpgp-tools.